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Where can we find funding for cultural heritage tourism projects?
As you begin to look for sources of funding, start close to home.
Many local libraries have information about funding resources
by state and by type of project, and it is also possible to
search the web to find out about other funding sources that
may be available in your area. Local and state sources of funding
are often easier to secure as you are not competing against
as applicants across the country. Be sure to consider charitable
organizations in your area (such as community foundations),
businesses or corporations that might be willing to sponsor
your efforts, as well as government sources such as funding
from the city, county or state.
You may want to contact the cultural heritage tourism contact
for your state to ask about funding resources within your state
that you may not be aware of. To find out if your state has a
cultural heritage tourism contact, look in the directory of statewide
contacts in this section of the website.
For more information about national funding resources, look
in the directory of national organizations in this section of
the website. This directory includes over 40 national organizations
that provide different kinds of assistance to cultural heritage
Before you submit a request for funding, be sure that you have
a clear sense of exactly what you are asking for and what outcomes
you anticipate. Do your research to be sure you know what the
potential donor is looking for. If possible, talk to the potential
donor about what you are trying to do to see if that source is
a good match before writing a formal proposal. When you do secure
funding or other donations, don’t forget to thank your
Tourism is big business. In 2003, travel and tourism contributed
$554.5 billion to the U.S. economy. Travel and tourism is the
third largest retail industry in the U.S. behind automotive dealers
and food stores. Travel and tourism directly employs more than
7.2 million people and creates a payroll income of $158 billion
and tax revenues of $94.7 billion for federal, state and local
governments. (Source:Travel Industry Association).
In addition to creating new jobs, new business and higher property
values, well-managed tourism improves the quality of life and
builds community pride. According to the 2003 The Historic/Cultural
Traveler study by the Travel Industry Association and Smithsonian
Magazine, 81% (118 million) U.S. adults who traveled in 2002
were considered cultural heritage travelers. These travelers
included historical or cultural activities on almost 217 million
person-trips last year, up 13 percent from 192 million in 1996.Visitors
to historic sites and cultural attractions stay longer and spend
more money than other kinds of tourists. Cultural and heritage
visitors spend, on average, $623 per trip compared to $457 for
all U.S. travelers excluding the cost of transportation. (Source:
2003 The Historic/Cultural Traveler, TIA). Perhaps the biggest
benefits of cultural heritage tourism, though, are diversification
of local economies and preservation of a community’s unique
This research section includes information about a number of
cultural heritage tourism research projects in different parts
of the U.S. Click on the links below to find out more about the
research that others have done to demonstrate the economic impact
of cultural heritage tourism in their area, or research to find
out more about cultural heritage travelers.
CULTURAL HERITAGE VISITOR PROFILE
growing number of visitors are becoming special-interest travelers
who rank the arts, heritage and/or other cultural activities
as one of the top five reasons for traveling. These visitors
are known as cultural tourists. Since 1998, the Travel Industry
Association of America (TIA) and Partners
in Tourism have collaborated
on research that illuminates the scope of this demographic
trend in travel. The fact sheet below summarizes key findings
in the latest report by TIA and Smithsonian Magazine, The
Historic/Cultural Traveler, 2003 Edition.
How many cultural tourists are there?
Nearly 118.1 million American adults
say they included at least one of fifteen arts, humanities, historic
or heritage activities
or events while traveling in 2002. This equates to more than
half of the U.S. adult population (56%). One quarter of these
cultural travelers take three or more of these trips per
year. In fact, historic/cultural travel volume is up 13 percent
1996, increasing from 192.4 million person-trips to 216.8
million person-trips in 2002.
What do we mean by cultural heritage tourism?
Cultural heritage tourism is based on
the mosaic of places, traditions, art forms, celebrations and experiences
portray this nation
and its people, reflecting the diversity and character
of the United States. Travelers who engage in cultural tourism
visit the following:
- art galleries, theater and museums
- historic sites, communities
- cultural events, festivals and fairs
- ethnic communities and
- architectural and archaeological treasures
Thirty percent or 35.3 million adults say
that a specific arts, cultural or heritage event or activity
choice of destination. In fact, many travelers will extend their
stay because of an arts, cultural or heritage event or activity.
Who are the cultural travelers?
Most cultural travelers want to enrich their lives with new
travel experiences. This is particularly true among
those aged 18-34,
75 percent of whom agreed that trips where they can
learn something new are more memorable to them.
- The demographic
profile of the cultural heritage travel segment today is
younger, wealthier, more educated and more
technologically savvy when compared to those surveyed in 1996.
- Generation X
and Y'ers (ages 18-34), are more apt than Matures aged 55+
to agree that trips where they can learn
something new are more memorable to them (75% vs. 63%).
- Households headed by
Baby Boomers (ages 35-54) are most likely (41%) to participate
in these activities.
How do cultural travelers compare to all U.S. travelers?
Eighty-one percent of the 146.4 million
U.S. adults who took a trip of 50 miles or more away from home
can be considered cultural tourists. Given this large
volume of travelers,
cultural/heritage tourism generates millions of dollars
for destination communities in spending on shopping,
expenses. This can be attributed in part to the fact
that cultural/heritage trips are likely to last seven
or longer. In a nutshell,
cultural tourists compared to the average U.S. traveler
more: $623 vs. $457
- Are older: 49 vs. 47
- Are more likely to be retired -- 20
percent vs. 16 percent
- Are more likely to have a graduate
degree: 21 percent vs. 19 percent
- Use a hotel, motel or B&B
-- 62 percent vs. 55 percent
- Are more likely to spend $1,000+/-:
19 percent vs. 12 percent
- Travel longer: 5.2 nights vs. 3.4
- Travel by air: 19 percent vs. 16 percent
Top Ten States Visited by Cultural/Historic
Travelers in 2002:
3) New York
5) Pennsylvania 6) Virginia
9) North Carolina
Sources: Travel Industry Association of America TravelScope survey 2003; The
Historic/Cultural Traveler, 2003 Edition, TIA and Smithsonian
NATIONAL HERITAGE AREAS
LEVERAGE SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INVESTMENT
As of November 2003, Congress has designated
24 National Heritage Areas, which are defined as places where "natural,
cultural, historic and recreational resources combine to form a
nationally distinctive landscape arising from patterns of human
activity shaped by geography." These heritage areas represent
a significant component in the cultural heritage tourism infrastructure.
Each area creates a thematic story out of its natural, cultural
and historic resources, which are managed and interpreted by
the National Park Service through strategic public-private
partnerships. Anecdotal evidence has always indicated these
are effective in leveraging additional resources and investment.
A 2003 survey by the National Park Service Heritage Areas Program
shows that heritage areas have leveraged an impressive 8.7-to-1
match. The study's findings also reveal an impressive diversity
of sources, which includes federal Transportation Enhancement
funding, state and local government dollars and the private
sector (foundations, corporate and individuals) support.
Source: National Park Service Heritage Areas Program,
Park Service Heritage Areas Program, 2003 Transportation Enhancement
funds in particular have been a very flexible source
of funding for cultural and heritage tourism projects. Enhancement
funds not only provide support for the restoration of historic
properties and scenic byways, but also for interpretive materials
in the development of historic driving tours such Virginia's
Civil War Trails. For more information on Transportation Enhancements
and how they been used by the arts and heritage organizations
on the Past: Traveling to the Future, published
by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National
Assembly of State Arts
Agency’s Arts and Transportation:
Connecting People and Culture.
Spending by Arts Audiences
The nonprofit arts, unlike most industries, leverage significant
amounts of event-related spending by their audiences. Attendance
at arts events generates related commerce for hotels, restaurants,
parking garages, and more.
Nonprofit Arts Attendees Spend an Average of $22.87 Per Person
Non-Local Arts Attendees Spend 75 Percent More Per Person
- When governments reduce their support for the arts,
they are not cutting frills. Rather, they are undercutting
an industry that is a cornerstone of tourism, economic development,
and the revitalization of many downtowns. When governments
their support for the arts, they are generating tax revenues,
jobs, and a creativity-based economy.
- Data collected from
40,000 attendees at a range of arts events reveal an average
spending of $22.87 per person, not including
the price of admission. This spending generates an estimated
$80.8 billion of valuable revenue annually for local merchants
and their communities.
- The findings also reveal that non-local
attendees spend nearly twice as much as local attendees ($38.05
compared to $21.75),
demonstrating that a community that attracts cultural tourists
stands to harness significant economic rewards.
Source: Americans for the Arts. 2002.
Economic Impact of the Arts
When community leaders fund the arts, they not only enhance our
quality of life, but also invest in our economic well-being.
Economic Impact of the Nonprofit Arts Industry
Total Economic Activity $134 Billion
Total Spending by Nonprofit Arts Organizations $53.2 Billion
Total Spending by Nonprofit Arts Audiences $80.8 Billion
Total Full-Time Equivalent Jobs Supported 4.85 Million
Total Tax Revenue Generated $24.4 Billion
Federal Income Tax Revenue $10.5 Billion
State Government Revenue $7.3 Billion
Local Government Revenue $6.6 Billion
Total Household Income Generated $89.4 Billion
- Arts organizations are responsible
businesses, employers, and consumers. Spending by nonprofit
arts organizations—only a fraction of the total arts and entertainment
industry—was an estimated $53.2 billion in fiscal 2000,
and leveraged an additional $80.8 billion in event related
spending by arts audiences. This $134 billion in total economic
supports 4.85 million FTE jobs and generates $24.4 billion
in government revenue annually.
- From major metropolitan areas
to small rural towns, this research shows that the nonprofit
arts are an economically
sound investment. They attract audiences, spur business development,
support jobs, and generate government revenue. Locally as well
as nationally, the arts mean business.
Source: Arts & Economic
Prosperity, Americans for the Arts. 2002.
The Creative Industries in Denver
“ A creative economy is the fuel of magnificence.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The Creative Industries
study provides a new, research-based approach to understanding
the scope and importance of the arts
to the nation’s economy. The creative industries are
composed of arts-centric businesses that range from museums,
and theaters to film, architecture, and advertising companies.
Nationally, more than 548,000 businesses are involved in the
production and delivery of America’s creative industries
(4.3 percent of all U.S. businesses) and they employ 2.99 million
people (2.2 percent of all employees). The creative industries
also provide the high-octane fuel that drives the “information
economy”—the fastest growing segment of the nation’s
In Denver, there are 2,198 arts-related businesses (including
nonprofits) that employed 12,433 people in January 2004. Using
reliable Dun & Bradstreet data and geo-economic analysis,
Americans for the Arts produced the map below to provide a clear
picture of the creative industries in Denver.
The arts mean business!
2,198 Arts-Related Businesses in Denver Employ 12,433 People
The following table presents a detailed breakdown of the creative
industries in Denver. The first column (“category”)
is the name of the business sector; the second column (“businesses”)
lists the number of companies—including nonprofits—in
that sector; and the third column (“employees”) indicates
the number of people employed by those companies. Totals are
listed at the bottom of the table. Preliminary analysis suggest
an under-representation of nonprofit arts organizations in the
Dun & Bradstreet database, and consequently, in the data
below. The source of these data is Dun & Bradstreet; they
are current as of January 2004.
|Museums and Collections
||Zoos and Botanicals
||Services & Facilities
|Film, Radio and TV
|Design and Publishing
|Arts Schools and Services
||Arts Schools and Instruction
There are a number of publications which can
help you as you develop, market and manage cultural heritage
tourism in your community or region. Some of these publications
are listed below along with links to other websites where you
can order these publications online. If you know of other publications
that should be listed in this section, please contact us at email@example.com.
The following publications are available through the:
American Association of Museums at www.aam-us.org
Mastering Civic Engagement: A Challenge to Museums
This call to action from the Museums & Community Initiative
challenges museums to pursue their potential as active players
in community life. Essays and reflections by museum professionals
and community practitioners offer food for thought on the
complex process of changing the terms of engagement between
and museums. ($24)
Museums & Community
This toolkit is designed to assist museums in planning successful
museum-community dialogues. It includes helpful hints, logistical
tips, and sample documents for organizing a structured conversation
among people involved in the business of building community.
Americans for the Arts at www.artsusa.org:
Cultural Districts Handbook: The Arts as a Strategy for Revitalizing
By Hilary Anne Frost-Kumpf. This handbook reveals how cultural
districts are established, the processes and players that can
help define their shape and strategy, and how cultural districts
can best reflect the unique strengths of cities and well as support
local artistic and redevelopment goals. ($23)
National Trust for Historic
Preservation at http://www.preservationbooks.org/
Share Your Heritage: Cultural Heritage Tourism Success Stories
An 80-page four-color publication featuring cultural heritage
tourism success stories from across the country. Stories were
selected by a national committee including representatives
from historic preservation, museums, the arts and the humanities,
plus Stories Across America: Opportunities in Rural Tourism:
a companion 44-page publication of rural tourism success stories.
Great Tours!: Thematic Tours and Guide Training for Historic
Creating tours that are interesting and educational for visitors
(and guides!) is a challenge every historic site faces. Great
Tours! helps you focus clearly on the material culture and significance
of your site and then shows you how to use that focus to train
and energize your guides. You will be able to move your tours
to a fresh new level that is engaging and educational for visitors
of all ages and abilities. ($24.95)
Touring Historic Places
a 16-page guide for group tour operators and managers of historic sites to
develop, market, and host group heritage tours. ($10)
Preserving Our Past: Building Our Future
an 8-minute video describing the economic impact of heritage
tourism and other benefits that heritage tourism can provide.
If Walls Could Talk: Telling the Story of a Historic Building
to Create a Market Edge
This publication offers marketing, public relations, and interior
design strategies to create effective interpretation programs
for rehabilitated historic buildings. ($4)
Interpreting Historic House Museums
The respected museum professionals who contributed to this book
consider the history of house museums and the need to look
at familiar issues from new perspectives and using new methods.
Its discussion of contemporary issues and successful programs,
its practical guidelines and information, up-to-date references,
and lively illustrations will make it useful and relevant for
both students and practicing professionals. ($24.95)
Public Relations Strategies
for Historic Sites and Communities: Offering a Media Tour (PDF)
How to organize a media tour of historic sites and measure its
Welcoming Visitors to Your Community: Training Tour Guides and
Other Hospitality Ambassadors
A guide to help communities, sites, and other organizations train
tour guides, docents and other hospitality workers to welcome
visitors to historic attractions. ($6)
Forum Journal – Summer
l999 New Directions in Heritage Tourism:
A 60-page publication focusing on issues of heritage tourism.
It contains eight articles reflecting current trends and initiatives
in heritage tourism. ($6)
Travel Industry Association
of America at www.tia.org
The Historic/Cultural Traveler 2003 Edition
This new study from TIA and Smithsonian Magazine underscores
the popularity and importance of cultural, arts, historic,
and heritage activities to U.S. travelers. This report provides
a detailed profile of U.S. trips that include cultural/historic
activities and examines the trip planning habits and attitudes
of travelers that participate in such activities. Includes
analyses of several segments of the historic/cultural travel
market, such as census region of destination, mode of transportation,
lodging type, household income groups, and generation groups.
Information in this report is captured in two consumer studies
conducted by the TIA, TravelScope and the Historic/Cultural
Traveler Survey. ($135 TIA members/$225 nonmembers)
Tourism Works for America, 13th Annual Edition
The Tourism Works for America, 13th Annual Edition 2004 promotes
a wider understanding of travel and tourism as a major U.S.
industry that is vital to the economic stability and growth
of the United States and that contributes substantially to
its cultural and social well being. First published in 1991,
this 36-page four-color publication is the single most authoritative
publication that annually tells the combined story of the
travel, tourism, hospitality, and recreation industries
the industry’s ability to speak with one consistent
Geotourism: The New Trend in Travel, 2003 Edition
Geotourism is tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical
character of the place being visited, including its environment,
culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well being of its
describes completely all aspects of sustainability in travel.
Geotourism: The New Trend in Travel, sponsored by National
Geographic Traveler, presents the results of a large consumer
study on travelers' environmental and cultural attitudes and
behaviors. The report defines "geotourists" as
those who are quite conscious of the environment and are
to seek culture and unique experiences when they travel.
They represent millions of travelers and are a very lucrative
for the travel industry. The report also explores consumer
awareness of travel companies' various environmental and
cultural practices, and shows that millions of travelers
to support geotourism practices with their travel dollars.
($135 TIA members/$225 nonmembers)
Domestic Travel Market Report, 2004 Edition
The Domestic Travel Market Report provides relevant information
on the size and profile of all U.S. resident domestic travel,
as well as various travel market segments based on TIA’s
TravelScope monthly survey. This annual report provides an
overview of the 1.140 billion person-trips taken domestically
by U.S. residents and includes trip characteristics and traveler
demographics for overall U.S. domestic travel in 2003. Data
on participation by these travelers in 20 travel activities,
including a number related to historic/cultural tourism,
are also provided. ($180 TIA members/$300 nonmembers)
Balancing Nature and Commerce in Gateway Cities
Americans are migrating to communities near national parks, national
wildlife refuges, and other natural areas in search of a better
quality of life. As a result, communities surrounding these
areas, known as gateway communities, are experiencing change
at unprecedented rates. This book describes opportunities for
preserving the character and integrity of gateway communities
and the natural systems that surround them without sacrificing
local economic well-being.
Vermont Cultural Heritage Tourism Toolkit
A comprehensive and practical guide to developing and promoting
cultural heritage tourism in your community available as a
full color booklet. The Toolkit is free and you may order one
to be mailed to you for a $6.00 handling and shipping fee.
Bulk orders of 10 or more are $5.00/each for handling and shipping.
To view individual chapters of the Toolkit in PDF format go
to Services/Partnerships. To order your copy by phone or by
email and charge it to VISA or MasterCard,
contact Janice King at 802-828-3293 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Save America’s Treasures is a national effort to protect "America's
threatened cultural treasures, including historicstructures,collections,
works of art, maps and journals that document and illuminate
the history and culture of the United States." Established
by Executive Order in February 1998, Save America's Treasures
was originally founded as the centerpiece of the White House
National Millennium Commemoration and as a public-private
partnership that included the White House, the National Park
the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Dedicated to
the preservation and celebration of America's priceless historic
legacy, Save Americas Treasures works to recognize and rescue
the enduring symbols of American tradition that define us
Alternative Enterprises and Agritourism
Alternative and agritourism enterprises allow farmers and ranchers
to earn higher profits by replacing or supplementing traditional
farm operations with innovative on-farm or on-ranch ventures.
Alternative enterprises can take many forms. They can produce
food and fiber or have little to do with agriculture. They
can produce new or unique crops or livestock or add value to
traditional agricultural products. They can produce fun, recreation,
nature-based, or educational products. They can rely on traditional
farm practices or use alternative methods, such as organic
systems. They can be labor and resource intensive or require
few inputs. They can operate seasonally, or year-round. But
they all have a common theme: farmers and ranchers rely on
the natural resources on their land - the soil, water, air,
plants, wildlife, and scenery - to keep their family on the
farm and the farm in their family. They also require sound
land care. Since the land's resources generate income, conserving
those resources makes good business sense.
SHARE YOUR HERITAGE
What is Share Your Heritage?
Share Your Heritage is an initiative of Partners in Tourism,
a coalition of national cultural organizations and agencies.
It includes planning workshops, workshop curriculum training
materials and a publication of cultural heritage tourism success
stories. The success stories and training materials are available
in printed form and can also be downloaded from this website.
The workshops and the training materials allow communities
to use successful projects and experts in cultural heritage
tourism to help address critical issues. Each workshop results
in an action plan to be implemented locally.
What are the Share Your Heritage workshops?
The workshops bring approximately 30 invited community, regional
and state leaders representing a variety of disciplines together
to develop sustainable cultural heritage tourism strategies.
Each local workshop is designed to address specific cultural
heritage tourism issues, and the workshop participants are
carefully selected. Workshop sessions include cross-discipline
training, cultural heritage tourism instruction using expert
national and local faculty, and interactive training and problem
What do the curriculum materials for the workshops include?
The Share Your Heritage initiative includes how-to curriculum
materials to supplement the National Trust for Historic Preservation's
five principles and four steps for successful and sustainable
cultural heritage tourism. The curriculum materials have been
field tested in more than two dozen workshops completed between
2002 and 2005. The materials include best practices, interactive
exercises and tips from experts in the field. They are designed
to be used in workshop settings. Training materials can be
downloaded from the “How to Get Started” section
of this website.
To complement these curriculum materials, Share Your Heritage
compiled a series of success stories. These were selected from
nominations by key leaders in all 50 states and reviewed by
a multidisciplinary review panel, including representatives from
the American Association of Museums, the National Assembly
State Arts Agencies, the National Endowment for the Arts, the
National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Trust
for Historic Preservation. The review panel looked for examples
of successful partnership efforts with useful lessons and/or
guidance for other emerging cultural heritage tourism projects
Where can I find the Share Your Heritage success stories?
These success stories are available through the National Trust
for Historic Preservation as a four-color publication Share
Your Heritage: Cultural Heritage Tourism Success Stories,
also be found on this website in the “Success Stories” section.
The 80-page, four-color publication includes two dozen success
stories. It comes with a complimentary copy of the companion
44-page publication, Stories Across America: Opportunities in
Rural Tourism. To order, go to www.nthp.org or call (202) 588-6296.
How do I find out more about the Share Your Heritage workshops?
Contact the National Trust’s Heritage Tourism Program at
and Heritage Tourism – The Same, or
Cultural tourism, heritage tourism, cultural heritage tourism.
Where do these terms overlap, and what are the differences
between these terms?
Started in Cultural Corridor Development
you are developing a cultural corridor, this step-by-step checklist
covers the critical actions that you will need to take.
Does Your Statewide Program Measure Up?
can statewide programs in cultural or heritage tourism measure
impact? This series of 10 questions will help statewide programs
take a closer look at what they have accomplished.
Heritage Tourism Glossary of Terms
heritage tourism brings together a variety of fields such as
tourism, the arts, preservation, museums, humanities
and others—and each field has their own “alphabet
soup” of terminology. This glossary of terms will help
stakeholders speak the same language.
A one-page summary of the five guiding principles for successful
and sustainable cultural heritage tourism development.
A one-page summary of the four basic steps for getting started
or taking your cultural heritage tourism program to the next
to Organize Successful Events & Celebrations
A series of handouts with tips to help you:
Heritage Tourism Creates Jobs
A 2-page information sheet with statistics from the Travel Industry
Association on tourism jobs in the United States as well as descriptions
of the diverse tourism related employment opportunities.